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Table 4 Baseline characteristics, operative data, and outcome: comparison between insulin-treated and non-insulin-treated groups. Data are expressed as mean ± SD, median (range), and n (%)

From: Coronary artery bypass surgery in type 2 diabetic patients: predictors of mortality and morbidity

VariableIT group, n = 322NIT group, n = 207p value
Baseline characteristics
 Diabetes duration (months)120 (1–648)84 (0–468)< 0.001
 Peripheral vascular surgery, n (%)9 (1.7)1 (0.2)0.009
 Renal failure (severe or more), n (%)22 (6.8)9 (4.3)0.27
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%)62 (19.3)32 (15.5)0.29
 Anemia, n (%)81 (25.2)36 (17.4)0.04
 Polyvascular atherosclerotic disease, n (%)70 (21.7)27 (13)0.01
 Retinopathy and/or nephropathy, n (%)36 (11.6)8 (3.9)0.015
 EuroSCORE II1.9 (0.7–47)1.4 (0.7–32.8)0.001
 A1c hemoglobin (%)8.5 (5.8–14.9)7.3 (5.3–13.8)< 0.001
Operative data
 Urgency-emergency, n (%)43 (13.4)23 (11.1)0.58
 Distal anastomosis per patient2.3 ± 0.82.4 ± 0.80.1
 Complete revascularization, n (%)151 (46.9)116 (56)0.04
 All arterial revascularization, n (%)65 (20.2)44 (21.3)0.84
 Difficult weaning of cardio-pulmonary bypass, n (%)36 (11.2)12 (5.8)0.04
 Intra-aortic balloon pump insertion, n (%)31 (9.6)9 (4.3)0.03
Postoperative course
 In-hospital deaths, n (%)24 (7.5)7 (3.4)0.036
 Ventilator support (hours)8 (3–1560)6 (2–524)< 0.001
 Intensive care unit stay (hours)44 (18–1560)44 (18–528)0.001
 Postoperative stay (days)13 (2–106)13 (2–53)0.09
 Cardiac complications, n (%)82 (25.5)35 (16.9)0.024
 Infective complications, n (%)102 (31.7)40 (19.3)0.002
 Respiratory complications, n (%)68 (21.1)24 (11.6)0.005
 Renal failure, n (%)50 (15.5)18 (8.7)0.024
 Cerebro-vascular accident, n (%)8 (2.5)3 (1.5)0.541
 Poor glycemic control, n (%)134 (41.6)49 (23.7)< 0.001
  1. IT insulin-treated group, NIT non-insulin-treated