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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics for the studied sample

From: Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement with central cannulation: A cost-benefit analysis in a developing country

 Mini-sternotomy (MS) (n = 50)Full sternotomy (FS) (n = 52)p
Age (years)(Mean ± SD)a41.1 ± 10.346.4 ± 10.30.72
Min, max28, 6225, 71
GenderMale37(74)33(63.5)0.29
Weight (kg)(Mean ± SD)78.1 ± 20.489.9 ± 13.50.02
Height (cm)(Mean ± SD)171.2 ± 10.3171.4 ± 8.20.49
BMI (kg/m2)(Mean ± SD)26.98 ± 6.731.1 ± 5.70.001
BSA(Mean ± SD)1.88 ± 0.242.02 ± 1.70.001
Angina statusCCS 118(36.0)7(13.5)< 0.001
CCS 224(48.0)11(21.2)
CCS 38(16.0)33(63.5)
CCS 40(0.0)1(1.9)
Dyspnea statusNYHA 15(10)0(0)
NYHA 228(56)8(15.4)< 0.001
NYHA 317(34)42(80.8)
NYHA 40(0)2(3.8)
EuroSCORE %(Mean ± SD)1.99 ± 1.432.05 ± 1.770.64
Congestive cardiac failureNever50(100)50(96.2)0.49
Past0(0)2(3.8)
Diabetes mellitusbDiet control0(0)1(1.9)0.76
Oral therapy3(6)3(5.8)
Insulin2(4)3(5.8)
Hypertension 11(22)18(34.6)0.21
Hypothyroidism 0(0)1(1.9)0.24
Dyslipidemia 2(4)7(13.5)0.14
SmokingEx-smoker9(18)14(26.9)0.53
Active smoker4(8)3(5.7)
GI tractLiver dysfunction1(2)1(1.9)1
RenalCr > 200 umol/l0(0)3(5.8)0.24
RespiratoryAsthma1(2)0(0)0.49
COPD1(2)1(1.9)
CVDStroke1(2)1(1.9)1
PVDArteriopathy1(2)2(3.8)1
Preoperative arrhythmiaAtrial fibrillation (AF)1(2)1(1.9)1
Hemoglobin(Mean ± SD)13.5 ± 1.3713.24 ± 1.790.35
 Min, max10.2, 16.29.8, 17
S. creatinine (mg/dl)(Mean ± SD)0.98 ± 0.390.84 ± 0.390.09
 Min, max0.5, 30.2, 14
Creatinine clearance (ml/min)(Mean ± SD)69.2 ± 22.6377.72 ± 35.690.37
S. bilirubin(Mean ± SD)0.74 ± 0.370.48 ± 0.180.13
Coronary angiography 12(24)42(80.8)< 0.001
  1. BMI body mass index; COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; MI myocardial infarction; PVD peripheral vascular disease (or extracardiac arteriopathy) as indicated by claudication, amputation for arterial insufficiency, aortoiliac occlusive disease reconstruction, peripheral vascular bypass surgery, angioplasty or stent, or documented abdominal aortic aneurysm; EuroSCORE European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation; CVD cerebrovascular disease; PVD peripheral vascular disease or extracardiac arteriopathy
  2. aThe values are the number of patients with the percentage in brackets or the mean ± standard deviation or the median and interquartile range in brackets
  3. bBasal serum glucose > 200 mg/dl at three consecutive measurements before surgery