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Table 1 Timeline of major development in AI field with medical applications

From: Requirement of artificial intelligence technology awareness for thoracic surgeons

Year Development
1950 Alan Turing develops the “ Turing test”
1956 1st international conference on AI called “Dartmouth Summer Research Project on AI” conducted. John McCarthy coins the term “AI”
1958 John McCarthy creates the first full logical AI programme and described in technical paper “Programs with common sense”.
1959 The term “Machine learning” coined by Arthur Samuel.
1961 “Unimate” the first industrial robot, which worked on a General Motors assembly line in Ewing Township, New Jersey, USA.
1964 First chatbot “ELIZA” (natural language processing computer programme) developed by Joseph Weizenbaum.
1966 The first animated robot to reason about its actions, “Shakey -first electronic person” produced at Stanford University.
1971 A pilot research resource on computers in Biomedicine was funded at Rutgers University under Saul Amarel.
1972 “MYCIN” a clinical decision support consultation system, focused on appropriate management of patients who had infections, developed at Stanford University by Edward Shortliffe.
1973 “SUMEX-AIM” project (Stanford University Medical Experimental computer for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine) a national computer resource funded by the National Institutes of Health, USA started.
1975 The first National Institutes of Health, USA sponsored workshop conducted at Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine as the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine.
1976 AI based, Causal-associational network (CASNET) model characterises the pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical course of treated and untreated diseases for glaucoma.
1978 Herbert Simon earned a Nobel Prize for his “Limited Rationality Theory” which is an important work on AI.
1980 CADUCEUS has been developed as the knowledge-intensive expert system for medical diagnosis.
1986 First driverless Robot car, built in Munich under the direction of Ernst Dickmanns, drives up to 55 mph on empty streets.
Barbara Grosz created the first computation model “Discourse” for the field of research.
1997 IBM’s Deep Blue Defeats Garry Kasparov in Chess.
2000 MIT’s Cynthia Breazeal develops “KisMet”, a robot that could recognise and simulate emotions.
2007 IBM begin development of Deep QA technology-based “IBM Watson” programme.
2010 Microsoft launched Kinect for Xbox 360, the first gaming device to track human body movement, using 3D camera and infra-red detection, creating virtual reality and enabling users to play their Xbox 360 wirelessly.
2012 Apple introduces Siri “Intelligent personal assistant”
2014 Amazon virtual assistance “Alexa “released.
2015 “Pharmabot” A Pediatric Generic Medicine Consulting chatbot developed.
2017 “Arterys”, cloud-based medical imaging software for cardiac MRI analysis get USFDA approval.
2018 First Fatal accident involving a Robotic car with a Pedestrian occurred.
2020 Microsoft introduced its Turing Natural Language Generation (T-NLG), which is the “largest language model ever published at 17 billion parameters.”