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Table 2 Robotic surgery development history

From: Requirement of artificial intelligence technology awareness for thoracic surgeons

Year Development
1921 Czech playwright Karel Capek introduced the notion and coined the term “Robot” in his play Rossom’s Universal Robots
1985 First Robotic assist surgery performed by “PUMA 560” to obtain brain biopsy by Kwoh et al.
1988 Transurethral prostate resection performed by “PROBOT” at Imperial College London.
1992 Integrated Surgical Supplies Ltd. of Sacramento, CA, developed ROBODOC to machine the femur with greater precision in hip replacement surgeries—first surgical robot approved by the USFDA.
1993 AESOP (made by Computer Motion company) telescope manipulator introduced.
1995 Intuitive surgical company is founded.
1997 First laparoscopy procedure is performed by a Robotic system.
2000 Da Vinci (Intuitive Surgical) and ZEUS (Computer Motion) surgical systems approved by FDA.
2001 First distant transatlantic robot-assisted procedure (cholecystectomy) done.
2003 Computer Motion and Intuitive Surgical merge into one company. ZEUS company is discontinued
2004 “Spine Assist” device by Mazor Robotics Ltd., a miniature robotic guidance system received USFDA approval for spinal procedures.
2007 “Sensei-X” device developed by Hansen Medical company received USFDA approval for intravascular procedures.
2012 23,000 hip and knee procedures conducted globally with “MAKO” robotic system by The Stryker company.
2013 As reported, Over 500,000 surgical procedures performed worldwide with the da Vinci system.
2016 In the USA, surgical figures came out that over half of prostatectomies and a third of hysterectomies are performed robotically.
2019 Over 5000 da Vinci surgical systems installed worldwide and approximately 6 million surgeries conducted globally.